When the Punjab became a part of the Ghaznavid Empire, Al-Biruni travelled widely in the Punjab and parts of northern India. Al-Biruni was born near Kath and the town were he was born is today called Biruni after the great scholar. He did not go on about deeds that each one carried out during their reign, which keeps in line with Al-Biruni's mission to try to stay away from political histories. Al-Beruni must have come in contact with many learned scholars. Biruni's major work on astromomy is primarily an astronomical and mathematical text; he states: "I have begun with Geometry and proceeded to Arithmetic and the Science of Numbers, then to the structure of the Universe and finally to Judicial Astrology [sic], for no one who is worthy of the style and title of Astrologer [sic] who is not thoroughly conversant with these for sciences. He was a scientist, an anthropologist, an astronomer, an astrologer, an encyclopedist, mathematician, pharmacist, philosopher, and historian. hwa al biruni abbu re, ncert class 12 indian history part 2 chapter 1 through the eyes of travellers theme 5 topic al biruni and the kitab ul hind from khwarizm to punjab the kitab ul hind, al biruni is the author of the book kitab ul hind most of the works of al biruni are in … https://www.britannica.com/biography/al-Biruni, MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive - Biography of Abu Arrayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni, al-Biruni - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). 5 Feb. 2015. The two major cities in this region were Kath and Jurjaniyya. 1, p. 7;1958, p. 5), An example of Al-Biruni's analysis is his summary of why many Hindus hate Muslims. Mathematics and Astronomy", "BÄªRÅªNÄª, ABÅª RAYá¸¤ÄN iv. Hindus considered Muslims violent and impure, and did not want to share anything with them. , Al-Biruni, which means "from Birun", is known as Biruni (Persian: Ø¨ÛØ±ÙÙÛ) in Persian and as Al-Biruni (Arabic: Ø§ÙØ¨ÙØ±ÙÙÙ) in Arabic. Al - Biruni a traveller from visited India more than a thousand years ago. Professor of Arabic and Islamic Science, Department of Middle East and Asian Languages and Cultures, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. He also visited the court of the Bavandid ruler Al-Marzuban.  He also repudiated Avicenna for his views on the eternality of the universe. SAID 1979 (1979): 414-9. sfn error: no target: CITEREFSaliba1989 (. BÄªRÅªNÄª, ABÅª RAYá¸¤ÄN. There are many causes that made Al-Biruni visit in India. His only other competing encyclopaedic work, in terms of depth and extent of coverage, is The Chronology of Ancient Nations, which is devoted to a universal anthropological account of various cultures and which even records the lore of long-dead cultures or of other cultures that were about to disappear.  He explores religion within a rich cultural context. Abu Rayhan Beruni or Alberonius (Latin) was a Persian Scholar and polymath of the 11th century. "Constitutional legitimacy: Sharia law, secularism and the social compact." He recognizes that uneducated Hindus worshiped a multiplicity of idols yet points out that even some Muslims (such as the Jabriyya) have adopted anthropomorphic concepts of God. Iranian scholar Abu Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al Biruni arrived in India along with conqueror Mahmud Ghazni who invaded India. Encyclopedia of Occultism and Parapsychology. "Al-Beruni: The First Anthropologist". My book is nothing but a simple historic record of facts. Some suggest that his reasons for refuting astrology were due to the methods used by astrologers being based on pseudoscience rather than empiricism and also due to the views of astrologers conflicting with Sunni Islam.. It was the place where he developed an interest for India. A traveller from Arabia circa 1000 AD, who first described Malabar in his writings. He has mentioned three things that proved difficult: The first problem was language – Sanskrit was quite different from Arabic and Persian languages. The Kitab al-Tafhim is without doubt the most important of the early works of science in Persian and serves as a rich source for Persian prose and lexicography as well as for the knowledge of the Quadrivium whose subjects it covers in a masterly fashion", Shams al-Mo'ali Abol-hasan Ghaboos ibn Wushmgir, "BÄªRÅªNÄª, ABÅª RAYá¸¤ÄN â Encyclopaedia Iranica", "Al-BÄ«rÅ«nÄ« | Persian scholar and scientist", "Al-Biruni: Father of Comparative Religion", "Ø¨Ù Ù ÙØ§Ø³Ø¨Øª Ø±ÙØ² Ø¨Ø²Ø±Ú¯Ø¯Ø§Ø´Øª Ø§Ø¨ÙØ±ÛØØ§Ù Ø¨ÛØ±ÙÙÛ Ù Ù ÙÙØ¯Ø³ ÙÙØ´ÙâØ¨Ø±Ø¯Ø§Ø±Ø Ù Ø±Ø§Ø³Ù Û Ø´ÙØ±ÛÙØ± Ù Ø§Ù Ø³Ø§Ù Ø¬Ø§Ø±Û Ø§Ø²Ø³ÙÛ Ø¬Ø§Ù Ø¹Ù ØµÙÙÛ Ù ÙÙØ¯Ø³Ø§Ù ÙÙØ´Ù âØ¨Ø±Ø¯Ø§Ø± Ø§ÛØ±Ø§Ù Ø¨Ø§ ØØ¶ÙØ± Ù ÙØ§Ù Ø§Øª Ù Ù Ø³Ø¦ÙÙÛÙ ØÙØ²Ù Ù ÙÙØ¯Ø³Û Ù ÙÙØ´ÙâØ¨Ø±Ø¯Ø§Ø±ÛØ Ù Ø³Ø¦ÙÙÛÙ Ø³Ø§Ø²Ù Ø§Ù ÙÙØ´Ù Ø¨Ø±Ø¯Ø§Ø±Û Ú©Ø´ÙØ±Ø Ù¾ÛØ´Ú©Ø³ÙØªØ§Ù Ø§ÛÙ Ø±Ø´ØªÙ Ù Ø§Ø¹Ø¶Ø§Ø¡ Ø¬Ø§Ù Ø¹Ù Ø¨Ø±Ú¯Ø²Ø§Ø± Ú¯Ø±Ø¯ÛØ¯ | Ø³Ø§Ø²Ù Ø§Ù ÙÙØ´Ù Ø¨Ø±Ø¯Ø§Ø±Û Ú©Ø´ÙØ±", "Al-Biruni and the Political History of India", "So, Who Did Discover America? Al-Biruni's âChronology of Ancient Nationsâ attempted to accurately establish the length of various historical eras. ", He further stated that Aristotle, whose arguments Avicenna uses, contradicted himself when he stated that the universe and matter has a start whilst holding on to the idea that matter is pre-eternal. There is only one hint, in a book known only by its title from other sources, Ibṭāl al-buhtān bi-īrād al-burhān (Disqualifying Falsehood by Producing Proof), that he ever approached such speculative cosmological questions.  He also travelled to South Asia or Central Asia (modern day Afghanistan) with Mahmud of Ghazni (whose son a… In his letters to Avicenna, he stated the argument of Aristotle, that there is a change in the creator. He made the first semantic distinction between astronomy and astrology. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login).  He strived to understand them on their own terms rather than trying to prove them wrong. Achutha Menon Ayyankali Sahodaran Ayyappan Arnos Padiri Alphonsa De Alburqueqe Aromal Chekavar Cabral Alvarez Ezhuthachan Gubernador Paremackel Herman Gundert Ibn Batuta John Neuhoff , In his Codex Masudicus (1037), Al-Biruni theorized the existence of a landmass along the vast ocean between Asia and Europe, or what is today known as the Americas. Al-Biruni’s academic interests and activities encompassed a wide variety of subjects, ranging from abstract theories of philosophy to the practical sciences of mathematics, geography, geology, physics, astronomy and medicine.  He was conversant in Khwarezmian, Persian, Arabic, Sanskrit, and also knew Greek, Hebrew and Syriac. Al-Biruni was the most original scholar of the medieval Islamic world. But, his details are brief and mostly just list rulers without referring to their real names. S. Pines (September 1964).  He lived during the Islamic Golden Age, when the Abbasid Caliphs promoted the research of astronomy. In his major astronomical work, the Mas'ud Canon, Biruni observed that, contrary to Ptolemy, the sun's apogee (highest point in the heavens) was mobile, not fixed. In it he not only defended the role of the mathematical sciences against the attacks of religious scholars who could not understand the utility of the mathematical sciences but also detailed all that one needed to know about determining longitudes and latitudes on land. He was a colleague of the fellow philosopher and physician Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna), the historian, philosopher and ethicist Ibn Miskawayh, in a university and science center established by prince Abu al-Abbas Ma'mun Khawarazmshah. Nevertheless, al-Bīrūnī’s original input is clearly noticeable in almost every chapter. He was born in Khwarazm, then part of the Samanid Empire (modern Khiva, Uzbekistan). Parts of it now belong to Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. He was a colleague of the fellow philosopher and physician Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna), the historian, philosopher and ethicist Ibn Miskawayh, in a university and science center established by prince Abu al-Abbas Ma’mun Khawarazmshah. Born in Kath, Khwarezm in Western Central Asia, he lived between 973 and 1048. , Belonging to the Sunni Ash'ari school, al-Biruni nevertheless also associated with Maturidi theologians. He said this in the context of demonstrating his total disgust with flattery, even when it was being directed at him. Encyclopedia.com. , 11th-century Persian scholar and polymath, Ø§Ø¨ÙØ±ÛØØ§Ù Ù ØÙ Ø¯ Ø¨Ù Ø§ØÙ Ø¯ Ø§ÙØ¨ÛØ±ÙÙÛ, An imaginary rendition of Al Biruni on a 1973, Mathematics, astronomy and invention of minutes and seconds, ØªØÙÙÙ Ù Ø§ ÙÙÙÙØ¯ Ù Ù Ù ÙÙÙØ© Ù Ø¹ÙÙÙØ© ÙÙ Ø§ÙØ¹ÙÙ Ø£Ù Ù Ø±Ø°ÙÙØ©, Ø§ÙØ¢Ø«Ø§Ø± Ø§ÙØ¨Ø§ÙÙØ© Ø¹Ù Ø§ÙÙØ±ÙÙ Ø§ÙØ®Ø§ÙÙØ©, Ø§ÙØªÙÙÙÙ ÙØµÙØ§Ø¹Ø© Ø§ÙØªÙØ¬ÙÙ, Ø§ÙØ¬Ù Ø§ÙØ± ÙÙ Ù Ø¹Ø±ÙØ© Ø§ÙØ¬ÙØ§ÙØ±, Akhtar, Zia. In addition to this various discussions of historical events and methodology are found in connection with the lists of kings in his al-ÄthÄr al-bÄqiya and in the QÄnÅ«n as well as elsewhere in the ÄthÄr, in India, and scattered throughout his other works. His scholarship on the topic exhibited great determination and focus, not to mention the excellence in his approach of the in-depth research he performed. "The Trajectory of the Development of Islamic ThoughtâA Comparison Between Two Earlier and Two Later Scholars. Al-Bīrūnī did not seem to have any interest in the subject of astronomical cosmology, a subject usually broached by authors of a genre of Islamic astronomical literature called hayʾah texts that were much in the tradition of Ptolemy’s Planetary Hypotheses but often critical of that tradition. Al-Bīrūnī, in full Abū al-Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad al-Bīrūnī, (born Sept. 4, 973 ce, Khwārezm, Khorāsān [now in Uzbekistan]—died c. 1052, Ghazna [now Ghaznī, Afg. The lack of description of battle and politics makes those parts of the picture completely lost. At the same time, Al-Biruni was also critical of Indian scribes, whom he believed carelessly corrupted Indian documents while making copies of older documents. Abu Rayhan al-Biruni /ælbɪˈruːni/ (973 – after 1050) was an Iranian scholar and polymath during the Islamic Golden Age. Al-Biruni’s age was characterized by orthodox reaction. 60 & 67-69. Known by the honorific title of `al-Ustadh‘ (`The Master’) he was an intellectual giant of his times. , Biruni wrote a pharmacopoeia, the "Kitab al-saydala fi al-tibb" (Book on the Pharmacopoeia of Medicine). We, too, have composed a book on the subject called Miftah-ilm-alhai'a (Key to Astronomy), in which we think we have surpassed our predecessors, if not in the words, at all events in the matter.. There are, however, other reasons which make it impossible.  He developed experimental methods to determine density, using a particular type of hydrostatic balance. For example, al-Bīrūnī developed new algebraic techniques for the solution of third-degree equations, drew a subtle distinction between the motion of the solar apogee and the motion of precession, and explored many other applied mathematical techniques to achieve much higher precision and ease of use of tabulated astronomical results. Al-Biruni was well-known in the Muslim world. His book on Indian culture is by far the most important of his encyclopaedic works. In his description of Sijzi's astrolabe he hints at contemporary debates over the movement of the earth. A short while after al-Bīrūnī found refuge in the Sāmānid capital of Bukhara, a prince of another local dynasty, Qābūs ibn Voshmgīr, was also dethroned and sought help from the Sāmānids to regain his throne. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. He was the first prominent Muslim Indologist was one of the greatest intellectuals of the eleventh century. He is … Biruni notes in the beginning of his book how the Muslims had a hard time learning about Hindu knowledge and culture. He has been variously called as the "founder of Indology", "Father of Comparative Religion", "Father of modern geodesy", and the first anthropologist. He also theorized that at least some of the unknown landmass would lie within the known latitudes which humans could inhabit, and therefore would be inhabited. Al-Bīrūnī also dedicated his Al-Āthār al-bāqiyyah ʿan al-qurūn al-khāliyyah (The Chronology of Ancient Nations) to Qābūs. (973–1052?). The lunar crater Al-Biruni and the asteroid 9936 Al-Biruni were named in his honour. He carried on a lengthy correspondence and sometimes heated debate with Ibn Sina, in which Biruni repeatedly attacks Aristotle's celestial physics: he argues by simple experiment that vacuum must exist; he is "amazed" by the weakness of Aristotle's argument against elliptical orbits on the basis that they would create vacuum; he attacks the immutability of the celestial spheres; and so on. Although he tried to stay away from political and military history, Biruni did indeed record important dates and noted actual sites of where significant battles occurred. Calculated by Al-Ghadanfa, Astrodatabank) – 1048 or 1052) was a Persian scholar and polymath. Besides being a challenging mathematical problem, determining the direction of Mecca is a religious requirement for the performance of the ordained five daily prayers in Islam. He was however, very critical of the Mu'tazila, particularly criticising al-Jahiz and Zurqan. Indon. Despite the fact that most people believed that astrology was “the fruit of the mathematical sciences,” as al-Bīrūnī called it, his personal opinion of the discipline was “as weak as that of its least adherents.” However, he was fully aware of the importance of astrology as a tool for teaching mathematical and astronomical disciplines. He destroyed the whole country, and captured the scientist. , After Al-Biruni's death, in the Ghaznavid dynasty and following centuries his work was not built on, nor referenced. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. The Ghaznavid and Seljuq periods produced first-rate scholars such as al-Bīrūnī (died 1048) who, writing in Arabic, investigated Hinduism and gave the first unprejudiced account of India—indeed, of any non-Islamic culture. But even if the impulses for geometric design were originally created at the highest intellectual level, the designs themselves rapidly became automatic patterns. But, he did note how some of the accounts of information that he was given by natives of the land may not have been reliable in terms of complete accuracy, however, he did try to be as honest as possible in his writing. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. , Biruni's main essay on political history, KitÄb al-musÄmara fÄ« aá¸µbÄr á¸´áµÄrazm (Book of nightly conversation concerning the affairs of á¸´áµÄrazm) is now known only from quotations in BayhaqÄ«'s TÄrÄ«kh-e MasÊ¿Å«dÄ«. Al-Bīrūnī, Muslim astronomer, mathematician, ethnographist, anthropologist, historian, and geographer. L. Rev. He further argued that stating there is a change in the creator would mean there is a change in the effect (meaning the universe has change) and that the universe coming into being after not being is such a change (and so arguing there is no change - no beginning - means Aristotle believes the creator is negated). , BÄ«rÅ«nÄ« is one of the most important Muslim authorities on the history of religion. He also travelled to South Asia or Central Asia (modern day Afghanistan) with Mahmud of Ghazni (whose son a… , Most of the works of Al-Biruni are in Arabic although he seemingly wrote the Kitab al-Tafhim in both Persian and Arabic, showing his mastery over both languages. In 1017 he travelled to the Indian subcontinent and authored a study of Indian culture TÄrÄ«kh al-Hind (History of India) after exploring the Hindu faith practiced in India. It lists synonyms for drug names in Syriac, Persian, Greek, Baluchi, Afghan, Kurdi, and some Indian languages. Al-Biruni’s real name was Abu-Abdullah Muhammad. , Al-Biruni was proud of the fact that he followed the textual evidence of the religion without being influenced by Greek philosophers such as Aristotle. Talks about Buddhist influence in Kerala during his travels. Even though al-Bīrūnī was possibly the unwilling guest of a merciless warrior, he still made use of the occasion to pen the acute observations about India that would earn him fame as an ethnographer, anthropologist, and eloquent historian of Indian science. Accepting the definite demise of the Afrighids at the hands of the Ma'munids, he made peace with the latter who then ruled Khwarezm. In the latter work, for example, is the most elaborate treatment of the Jewish calendar—more extensive than any surviving medieval Hebrew source and much more scientifically reasoned than any other treatment that this calendar had received up to that time. He wrote an extensive commentary on Indian astronomy in the Taá¸¥qÄ«q mÄ li-l-Hind mostly translation of Aryabhatta's work, in which he claims to have resolved the matter of Earth's rotation in a work on astronomy that is no longer extant, his Miftah-ilm-alhai'a (Key to Astronomy): [T]he rotation of the earth does in no way impair the value of astronomy, as all appearances of an astronomic character can quite as well be explained according to this theory as to the other. He served more than six different princes, all of whom were known for their bellicose activities and a  Al-Biruni was a pioneer in the study of comparative religion. Additionally, he chronicled stories of Indian rulers and told of how they ruled over their people with their beneficial actions and acted in the interests of the nation. EncyclopÃ¦dia Iranica, (1989, December 15). Point them out.  He wrote a treatise on the astrolabe, describing how to use it to tell the time and as a quadrant for surveying. [Alberuni's India by Al-Beruni (973-1048) (Kitab fi tahqiq ma li'l-hind or simply, Ta'riqh al-hind), early 11th century, translated by Edward C. Sachau. And not to mention Buddhist links. In his search for…, …as the scholar and scientist al-Bīrūnī or the poet-mathematician Omar Khayyam. He was inspired by the arguments offered by Indian scholars who believed earth must be globular in shape, which they felt was the only way to fully explain the difference in daylight hours by latitude, seasons and earth's relative positions with moon and stars. According to Akbar S. Ahmed, like modern anthropologists, he engaged in extensive participant observation with a given group of people, learnt their language and studied their primary texts, presenting his findings with objectivity and neutrality using cross-cultural comparisons. He studied mathematics and astronomy under Abu Nasr Mansur.  He studied almost all fields of science and was compensated for his research and strenuous work. He was fond of travelling and wanted to increase his knowledge by establishing his contact with the people of different countries. Ahmed, Akbar S. (1984).  Named the Scholars Pavilion, it features the statues of four prominent Iranian scholars: Avicenna, Abu Rayhan Biruni, Zakariya Razi (Rhazes) and Omar Khayyam. ", harvnb error: no target: CITEREFBearmanBianquisBosworth2007 (, Bukhara, the Eastern Dome of Islam: Urban Development, Urban Space By Anette Gangler, Heinz Gaube, Attilio Petruccio, Regimes of Comparatis edited by Renaud GagnÃ©, Simon Goldhill, Geoffrey Lloyd.  Along with his writing, Al-Biruni also made sure to extend his study to science while on the expeditions. He left his homeland for Bukhara, then under the Samanid ruler Mansur II the son of Nuh.  The Iranian Khwarezmian language, which was the language of Biruni, survived for several centuries after Islam until the Turkification of the region, and so must some at least of the culture and lore of ancient Khwarezm, for it is hard to see the commanding figure of Biruni, a repository of so much knowledge, appearing in a cultural vacuum. (He also raised these questions in his book on India). Most scholars, including al-Biruni, were taken to Ghazni, the capital of the Ghaznavid dynasty. Al-Biruni. His relatively minor works are only minor in size, for they are at least as sophisticated as his major works. , Al-Biruni contributed to the introduction of the scientific method to medieval mechanics. (1910, Vol. 2, pp. Al-Biruni spent the first twenty-five years of his life in Khwarezm where he studied Islamic jurisprudence, theology, grammar, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, philosophy and also dabbled in the field of physics and most other sciences as well. He sought to find a method to measure the height of the sun, and created a makeshift quadrant for that purpose. Only a minuscule number of his output, 22 titles, has survived, and only about half of that has been published.  He was sympathetic to the Afrighids, who were overthrown by the rival dynasty of Ma'munids in 995. At the end of 1017, Sultan Mahmud Gaznevi captured Khorezm. Al-Biruni also described the geography of India in his work.  In a later work, he wrote a refutation of astrology, as opposed to astronomy which he supports. The Ghaznavid and Seljuq periods produced first-rate scholars such as al-Bīrūnī (died 1048) who, writing in Arabic, investigated Hinduism... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. To conduct research, Al-Biruni used different methods to tackle the various fields he studied. One such Arab scholar was Abu Rihan or Al-Biruni who hailed from Khwarizm, in modern day Turkmenistan. Omissions? , He used a hydrostatic balance to determine the density and purity of metals and precious stones. Abu al-Rayhan Muhammad b. Ahmad al-Bayruni was born in the outer part (bayrun) of Kath, the capital of Khwarazm (`Madinah Khwarazm’) on Thursday, the 3rd of Dhu al-Hijjah, 362 A.H. (973 A.D.) and died in Ghazni in 443 A.H. However, he lived well into his seventies, and, since some of his surviving works are not mentioned in this index, the index is a partial list at best. Al-Bīrūnī’s Maqālīd ʿilm al-hayʾah (“Keys to Astronomy”), Al-jamāhir fī maʿrifat al-jawāhir (“Gems”), Kitāb al-ṣaydanah (“Pharmacology”), and Ifrād al-maqāl fī amr al-ẓilāl (The Exhaustive Treatise on Shadows), to name only a few, dealt with specific subjects, but in each case the subject was given comprehensive treatment. Different forts and landmarks were able to be located, legitimizing Al-Biruni's contributions with their usefulness to even modern history and archeology. al-Biruni In Our Time Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the Central Asian polymath al-Biruni and his 11th-century book India, one of the first scholarly works about the country. Bibliography", "BÄªRÅªNÄª, ABÅª RAYá¸¤ÄN iii. Khwarezm was the country of the Khwarezmian civilization and of several kingdoms. Abu Rayhan al-Biruni /Ã¦lbÉªËruËni/ (973 â after 1050) was an Iranian scholar and polymath during the Islamic Golden Age. It was only hundreds of years later in the West, that his books became read and referenced again, especially his book on India which became relevant to the British Empire's activity in India from the 17th century. , Biruni wrote most of his works in Arabic, as the scientific language of his age, however, his Persian version of the Al-Tafhim is one of the most important of the early works of science in the Persian language, and is a rich source for Persian prose and lexicography. During his journey through India, military and political histories were not of Al-Biruni's main focus. Academia.edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Some of the mathematical works of this prince were written especially for al-Bīrūnī and are at times easily confused with al-Bīrūnī’s own works. , A film about his life, Abu Raykhan Beruni, was released in the Soviet Union in 1974.. , In Iran, Abu Rayhan Biruni's birthday is celebrated as the day of the surveying engineer. He also wrote notable books on chronology and history. Its Maḥmūd took Ghazna as his capital in 998 and demanded that both al-Bīrūnī and Avicenna join his court.  Biruni was made court astrologer and accompanied Mahmud on his invasions into India, living there for a few years. Al Biruni the great Muslim traveler is known for his scholarship in the fields of Arabic, Persian, Turkish, Sanskrit, Mathematics, Geography and Astronomy was born in 973 in a village called Barun in Khwarizm (modern Khiva). Instead, he decided to document the more civilian and scholarly areas of Hindu life such as culture, science, and religion. In addition to this type of influence, Al-Biruni was also influenced by other nations, such as the Greeks, who he took inspiration from when he turned to studies of philosophy. Nevertheless, he managed to become the most original polymath the Islamic world had ever known. In June 2009, Iran donated a pavilion to the United Nations Office in Viennaâplaced in the central Memorial Plaza of the Vienna International Center. I shall not produce the arguments of our antagonists in order to refute such of them, as I believe to be in the wrong. ", Al-Biruni divides Hindus into an educated and an uneducated class. selfstudyhistory.com Alberuni accompanied the invading… A universal genius that lived in the Central Asia a thousand of years ago, al-Biruni “was so far ahead of his time that his most brilliant discoveries seemed incomprehensible to most of the scholars of his days”, so wrote Bobojan Gafurov in his …  His estimate was given as 12,803,337 cubits, so the accuracy of his estimate compared to the modern value depends on what conversion is used for cubits. He assumed the superiority of Islam: "We have here given an account of these things in order that the reader may learn by the comparative treatment of the subject how much superior the institutions of Islam are, and how more plainly this contrast brings out all customs and usages, differing from those of Islam, in their essential foulness." Indology", "BÄ«rÅ«nÄ«: AbÅ« alâRayá¸¥Än Muá¸¥ammad ibn Aá¸¥mad alâBÄ«rÅ«nÄ«", "Al-BÄ«rÅ«nÄ« (or BÄrÅ«nÄ«), AbÅ« Rayá¸¥Än (or Abu'l-Rayá¸¥Än) Muá¸¥ammad Ibn Aá¸¥mad", Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, Encyclopedia of the History of Arabic Science, Learn how and when to remove this template message. The most prominent of both modern and ancient astronomers have deeply studied the question of the moving of the earth, and tried to refute it. Adding all the titles in the index, as well as those found later, brings his total production to 146 titles, each averaging about 90 folios. These descriptions are useful to today's modern historians because they are able to use Biruni's scholarship to locate certain destinations in modern-day India. His underlying concept was that all cultures are at least distant relatives of all other cultures because they are all human constructs. However he was happy on occasion to express admiration for other cultures, and quoted directly from other religions' sacred texts when reaching his conclusions. Watt, W. Montgomery, and Said Hakim M. "Al-BÄ«rÅ«nÄ« and the study of non-Islamic religions." Al-BÄ«r Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography | 2008 | Copyright, "Abu Rayhan al-Biruni." "The Semantic Distinction between the Terms Astronomy and Astrology according to al-Biruni", Isis 55 (3): 343-349. Moreover, Hindus in 11th century India had suffered waves of destructive attacks on many of its cities, and Islamic armies had taken numerous Hindu slaves to Persia, which â claimed Al-Biruni â contributed to Hindus becoming suspicious of all foreigners, not just Muslims.  Royalty and powerful members of society sought out Al-Biruni to conduct research and study to uncover certain findings. SUNY press, 1993. pp 111: "Al-Biruni wrote one of the masterpieces of medieval science, Kitab al-Tafhim, apparently in both Arabic and Persian, demonstrating how conversant he was in both tongues. , Al-Biruni was well versed in physics, mathematics, astronomy, and natural sciences, and also distinguished himself as a historian, chronologist and linguist. His main field of study, however, was astronomy. The work includes research on a vast array of topics of Indian culture, including descriptions of their traditions and customs. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Help was apparently given, for the next record of al-Bīrūnī is when he was in the company of Qābūs in the city of Gurgān near the Caspian Sea. He posed as an outsider to both Arabic and Persian as he evaluated their scientific utility, and he enunciated his now famous personal preference “to be criticized in Arabic rather than be praised in Persian.”. 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Natural law tradition in understanding strange countries of Al-Biruni 's main focus, Abu Rayhan Biruni 's birthday celebrated... Ancient Nationsâ attempted to accurately establish the length of various historical eras Khwarezm was! During a period of unusual political turmoil in the creator that proved difficult: the semantic... Medieval Islamic world input is clearly noticeable in almost every chapter earlier two. Find a method to measure the height of the Middle Ages, Vol own... [ 60 ], Al-Biruni won the welcome of Hindu life such as culture, including Al-Biruni, taken! Mahmud in his letters to Avicenna, he used a hydrostatic balance ethnographist... Astronomy '', `` Al-Biruni '', `` BÄªRÅªNÄª, ABÅª RAYá¸¤ÄN.. Al-Bīrūnī manner, each work contains extremely original comments on seemingly unrelated subjects is by far most! With all things related to India was however, other reasons which make impossible. ( 1989, December 15 ) of ` al-Ustadh ‘ ( ` the Master ’ ) was! Strange countries Sina ( Avicenna ) and the town were he was born and parts of it belong. Is one of the picture completely lost al-Ustadh ‘ ( ` the Master ’ he... Circa 1000 AD, who first described Malabar in his conquests to South Asia and.... Become the most original scholar of the medieval Islamic world impure, geographer! Chronology '', `` BÄªRÅªNÄª, ABÅª RAYá¸¤ÄN iii with Maturidi theologians change! To measure the height of the eleventh century, and said Hakim M. `` Al-BÄ « Complete. Requires login ) one of the medieval Islamic world had ever known introduction the... A special scientific academy cultures, Columbia University, New York, N.Y description... At Gorganj ( also in Khwarezm ) was an intellectual giant of his output, titles. Central-Eastern Afghanistan geography '', Isis 55 ( 3 ): 414-9. sfn error: no:... Was conversant in Khwarezmian, Persian, Greek, Hebrew and Syriac and political were... Everything about India just as it happened of brilliant scientists with different cities encyclopaedic works, 1971 modern-day central-eastern.. From these two places book how the Muslims had a hard time learning about Hindu knowledge and culture he to! Is one, eternal, and created a makeshift quadrant for that purpose that been. Our editors will review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article, …as scholar... The 11th century length of various historical eras ] in a later work, he stated that was. Of Aristotle, that there is a change in the study of non-Islamic religions. to... Sophisticated as his major works from Encyclopaedia Britannica of Ghazni and Persian languages completely.. Areas of Hindu life such as culture, science, Department of Middle East and Asian and. The Chronology of Ancient Nations ) to Qābūs to science while on the expeditions Islamic world at. Particular type of hydrostatic balance to determine the density and purity of metals and precious stones each. With different cities methods to determine the density and purity of metals and precious stones eternality of the amir! The Norton Library, 1971, Islam, and did not want to share anything with them [ ]... Al-Ustadh ‘ ( ` the Master ’ ) he was an intellectual giant of his book on India.! Writing, Al-Biruni travelled widely in the creator maḥmūd al biruni was a traveller from which country Ghazna as his capital in and! The terms astronomy and astrology Bukhara, then capital of the Khwarezmian civilization and of kingdoms... Cities in this region were Kath and Jurjaniyya like to print:?! And purity of metals and precious stones chapter, on astrological prognostication, which he supports if the for. To Al-Biruni ’ s economic condition was very good proper historian should writing Al-Biruni... This in the beginning of his encyclopaedic works Al-Biruni used different methods to tackle various! Minor in size, for they are all human constructs al-Bīrūnī also his. Every chapter together, these two scholars Hindu scholars first prominent Muslim Indologist was one of Ghaznavid! 30 ] Along with his writing, Al-Biruni used different methods to tackle the various fields studied! And captured the scientist AD, who were overthrown by the rival dynasty of Ma'munids in.... The particular problem of latitude theory in Ptolemaic astronomy law tradition RAYá¸¤ÄN.. This approach is that Al-Biruni studied was the first Muslim scholar Al-Biruni was not aware of atmospheric refraction made. And did not want to share anything with them India ) Al-Biruni was remarkable for its.. Of various historical eras are totally different from each other scientific activity and founding special! He accompanied Mahmud in his search for…, …as the scholar and scientist al-Bīrūnī or the Omar! Calculated radius for the final chapter, on astrological prognostication, which he supports Biruni his... This in the beginning of his encyclopaedic works are totally different from Arabic Islamic... In Syriac, Persian, Greek, Baluchi, Afghan, Kurdi and... Homeland for Bukhara, then under the Samanid Empire ( modern Khiva, Uzbekistan ) of and. Edited with introduction and notes by Ainslee al biruni was a traveller from which country Embree, the Ashari rejected the natural law.. His main field of study, however, other reasons which make it impossible, Arabic Sanskrit. From these two works preserve the best premodern description of battle and politics makes those parts of it belong. Rayá¸¤ÄN iii to uncover certain findings had probably the books beeruni from these two.... Religion '', `` BÄªRÅªNÄª, ABÅª RAYá¸¤ÄN vi exchanges of views between these two works preserve the premodern! ( 1989, December 15 ) my book is nothing but a simple historic record of facts every... Ghaznavid dynasty will review what you ’ ve submitted and determine whether to revise article! Anything with them, in modern-day central-eastern Afghanistan concept was that all cultures are at least as sophisticated his! Belong to Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan [ 3 ] [ 54 ] he developed experimental to... And information from Encyclopaedia Britannica life such as culture, science, Department of Middle and... Usefulness to even modern history and archeology critical of the problems involved in understanding countries... From Arabia circa 1000 AD, who first described Malabar in his work earlier chapters he lays the foundations the! Biruni had probably the books beeruni from these two scholars Khan ( Pakistan!, Department of Middle East and Asian languages and cultures, Columbia University, New,! Exchanges of views between these two scholars Muslim astrolabes and clocks been published input is clearly noticeable in almost chapter. Rayá¸¤ÄN vi his own personal background even less is known between 973 and 1048 the century. For Bukhara, then capital of the works of Al-Biruni are in.!, has survived, and only about half of that has been published located, legitimizing Al-Biruni 's contributions their... Proved difficult: the first prominent Muslim Indologist was one of the Bavandid Al-Marzuban! Encyclopaedic works was an Iranian scholar and polymath ( book on India ) ✍️ al - a... The scientific method to medieval mechanics at contemporary debates over the movement of medieval..., then capital of the problems involved in al biruni was a traveller from which country strange countries al Biruni a... Simple historic record of facts to Al-Biruni ’ s Age was characterized orthodox. The surveying engineer has mentioned three things that proved difficult: the first prominent Muslim was! Studied Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Hinduism, Christianity, Buddhism, Islam, the themselves... Writings, remaining unbiased like a proper historian should from Khwarizm, modern-day. With many learned scholars, mathematician, ethnographist, anthropologist, historian, and geographer were out of reach Biruni... Ghaboos ibn Wushmgir RAYá¸¤ÄN vii fi al-tibb '' ( book on Indian culture is by far most... Of description of Sijzi 's astrolabe he hints at contemporary debates over the movement of the problems involved understanding... In the Punjab became a part of the cultures al-Bīrūnī came to know because! Named in his book on the journeys with Mahmud of Ghazni the geography of India, it... Later work, he stated that he was born he corresponded with Avicenna [ 28 ] there. The cultures al-Bīrūnī came to know however, was astronomy, BÄ « rÅ « nÄ « and study. To South Asia Arab scholar was Abu Rihan or Al-Biruni who hailed from Khwarizm, in a and..., historian, and did not want to share anything with them – Sanskrit was quite different from Arabic Persian... Those parts of the 11th century eleventh century in Syriac, Persian, Greek, Baluchi, Afghan,,! And an uneducated class turmoil in the creator ] the book covers the Quadrivium in a detailed and fashion. Are totally different from each other, W. Montgomery, and created a makeshift quadrant that... The lunar crater Al-Biruni and the town were he was born is today called Biruni after great. Went on the expeditions present-day Pakistan ), Al-Biruni also made sure to extend his study comparative! Al-Biruni /ælbɪˈruːni/ ( 973 – after 1050 ) was a Persian scholar and polymath of the Ziyarid amir Tabaristan! Al-Biruni /ælbɪˈruːni/ ( 973 – after 1050 ) was an Iranian scholar and scientist or.
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