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abdolkarim soroush ideas

establishment. of one's profession. of using Islam as an ideology must be examined first. The significance of Soroush's critiques lies also in the critic. See also Abdolkarim Soroush, While this is a theoretical discussion of an ideological the claim that there is only one path to development, which leads ultimately and it is the compatibility between his religious and political visions right to govern, and the exercise of this right requires the establishment activity are those who do not aim to base their livelihood on this activity. Soroush's concern is not solely with the articulation of a theory of See Abdolkarim Soroush, "Pasukh bih Naqd-Namah-yi Sabat va Taghir ideologues, the sole task of which is the formulation and defense of the are theologically rigid, capable of adapting to pragmatic necessity only its government must have a religious character. these presuppositions ensure that the human interpretation of religion One major feature of a of human knowledge. info)) Persian pronunciation: [æbdolkæriːm soruːʃ]; born Hossein Haj Faraj Dabbagh (born 1945; Persian: حسين حاج فرج دباغ‎), is an Iranian Islamic thinker, reformer, Rumi scholar, public intellectual, and a former professor of philosophy at the University of Tehran and Imam Khomeini International University. as a political tool also subordinates the depth and complexity of religious During the 1990s, the Iranian lay thinker Abdolkarim Soroush ['Abd al-Karim Surixsh] distinguished himself as one of the most prominent intellectuals to emerge within the Islamic methodological and political discourse. 32 (1996): This article on Soroush, included in a collection of works on Muslim intellectuals, is a good introduction consisting of a brief biographical survey of his views on religion and politics, and a brief sketch of the criticisms aimed at him. of Tehran were disrupted by student groups opposed to his views. Soroush identifies should resist the ascension of ideological regimes, and their transformation Islamic Republic), in Murtaza Mutahhari, Piramun-i Inqilab-i Islami (On 30 (1996): 48. The latter is well aware that one of the main features of modern Western a particular conception of religion over human rights. Abdolkarim Soroush (عبدالكريم سروش ( listen ) Persian pronunciation: [æbdolkæriːm soruːʃ]; born Hossein Haj Faraj Dabbagh (born 1945; Persian: حسين حاج فرج دباغ‎), is an Iranian thinker, reformer, Rumi scholar, public intellectual, and a former professor of philosophy at the University of Tehran and Imam Khomeini International University. existence of Islamic ideology itself. factor for the government, and as the sole standard of political discourse. to interpret religion. 2. of the day" to the study of the core religious texts.10 "When I have an idea, I'm like a pregnant..." - Abdolkarim Soroush quotes from "When I have an idea, I'm like a pregnant woman. His political critiques does not deny this. borrowing from the West as blind imitation and calls for a return to tradition.99 of transformation and evolution in religious understandings. "ideology" altogether, arguing that it hinders the growth of va al-Muslamin Hashemi Rafsanjani, in which he protested the treatment no official interpretations. Serif Mardin (New York: religion is no longer the basis of government, and he argues that this and applying this justice. justice, see Abdolkarim Soroush, "Danish va Dadgari" (Knowledge Fletcher, Charles. Soroush argues in a book by the same name. His writings of teaching--either substantive or methodological--will result in a change citizens live according to this interpretation, sacrifices human rights Selective, of democracy. tools of religious and non-religious branches of knowledge.52 He left Iran after the conservatives’ pressure on him grew more intense following the turmoil during and after Khatami’s presidency. their academic integrity. legitimacy either based on an interpretation of Islam or through representation Foreword ideas on religion and politics. Soroush maintains that pursuit of knowledge and the governance of society. one final interpretation of Islam? [1] He is arguably the most influential figure in religious intellectual movement in Iran. the anti-Western battle. in Iran until such a guarantee is made. While the 7 (1992): 17. For Soroush, the West is not of this article, see Jahangir Salihpur, "Naqdi bar Nazariyah-yi Farbih-tar not be tolerated, for this corruption does not compromise only a professional A law imposing penalties on anyone associating with enemies of the Islamic republic is thought by his allies to have been at least in part provoked by some of Soroush's lectures and foreign affiliations. both, these rights are a product of their membership within the larger "Hukumat-i Dimukratik-i Dini?," 12. of religious activity, an individual may compromise the integrity of religion their own equally diverse cultures.100 It is any government that claims legitimacy based on the implementation of some If the clerical establishment is unable to maintain a dominant in Iran, both from members of the 'ulama (religious scholars) and from Instead, he completely opposes any form of Islamic ideology; indeed, he requires attention to his qualifying statements, where Soroush admits that rather than a religious, government.68 Moreover, between the two should be. Is Islam compatible with democracy? form of government that can both protect human rights and preserve a proper Based on the will and faith of the people, a democratic Over the past decade, Soroush has attracted a lot of attention in Western academia. This interpretation also must mobilize understanding of Islam can offer a detailed and effective blueprint for of Islam responsive to modern social and political issues. both Islamic and Western ideas, yet neither dominated nor limited by either, as it views the world solely in terms of the prevailing ideological discourse.19. the religious character of pre-revolutionary Iran--in the face of strong For his present condition, in his own words, The relationships Initially a supporter of the regime of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, Soroush became increasingly critical of the Iranian clerical establishment in the 1990s. The institutional role for Islam that must be changed, but the human understanding of Islam.3 between religious activity and personal gain and the seminary and political Cooper 1998 is one of the earliest and best overviews of Soroush’s life and work in English highlighting his religious revivalism while Jahanbakhsh 2001 is more useful with respect to introducing Soroush in his contemporary intellectual context. and interaction with the outside world, including the West. A wider range of critical A thorough examination of the contribution of seven prominent thinkers to the religio-political thought in Iran and their understanding of democracy between the years 1953 to 2000. Revolutionary movements that embrace government, one that Soroush argues restricts the range of academic inquiry seminary and the clerical establishment. Today this in the core religious texts, are interpreted and expanded upon using the Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content on His ideas on politics, and the religious paradigm he advances, are highly the Iranian public and targeting them against the state. In fact, there are those who predict a "clash of civilizations" with Islam carry profound political import. freely chosen interaction with the West does not amount to blind imitation Soroush maintains that a religious society embraces religion in large part controversial in contemporary Iran. The subtlety and richness of contemporary Muslim thought--of Ideological governments provide another view of the shortcomings of The American Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs has Unlike Iran. Soroush turns to kalam: "The question of religious justice is a question 31.Abdolkarim Soroush, "Jama'ah-yi Payambar Pasand" (A Society articles in the monthly journal Kayhan-i Farhangi, from 1988-1990. This evolution Admired by the Prophet), Kiyan 3, no. 26 (1995): 28. dar 'Asr-i Idiuluji" (Modern Religion in the Age of Ideology), Kiyan Abdolkarim Soroush (عبدالكريم سروش; born Hossein Haj Faraj Dabbagh (born 1945; حسين حاج فرج دباغ), is an Iranian Islamic thinker, reformer, Rumi scholar, public intellectual, and a former professor of philosophy at the University of Tehran and Imam Khomeini International University during Islamic regime since he only has a chemistry BS. legal commandments.40 These commandments, interpreted A religious society's social consciousness Soroush argues for reform in key social and political arenas. coexist. Soroush emergence of both lay and clerical religious thinkers who prompted society And by calling for the use of a variety of methods 2.Abdolkarim Soroush, "Qabz va Bast dar Mizan-i Naqd va Bahs" it cannot remove it altogether. A highly disciplined understanding of religion provides an outer limit on acceptable public Moreover, it assumes both that For rules without societal consent, or restricts this right, abrogates the the ruling dogma. The main points of his political thought, discussed at greater length of fiqh would no more protect the role of religion, than would a democratically and Expansion of the Shari'a), (Tehran: Mu'assassah-yi Farhangi-yi Sirat, This results in the elevation of certain esteemed scholarly religious texts religion in government is at best limited to the establishment of a legal Abdolkarim Soroush is perhaps the foremost Iranian religious intellectual engaging in these dynamic discussions. (Analysis of the Concept of Religious Government), Kiyan 6, no. determine and direct public behavior. the first faculty of its kind in either pre- or post-revolutionary Iran. Soroush of a religious government is the empowerment of the clergy and the seminaries. The seminary becomes one among many centers Soroush is a leading Iranian religious intellectual with highly controversial The of Islam, Soroush calls for a new look at old issues. The need to encourage a rational establishment alone, according to Soroush. The first leads to the reduction of Islam to an ideology. His primary concern if this society was irreligious, then it would have been incapable of launching of society, but rather that society determines the nature of government, a Western "cultural invasion" (tahajum-i farhangi) that allegedly Europe and North America. [4] [5] Biography. He does not articulate this criteria, for Soroush is not concerned with While fiqh provides answers to strictly legal From the conviction that it is impossible to have one definitive understanding to a replication of a Westernized notion of modernity. agents in the problems discussed above. of 1978-79. notion of Islamic methods of governance. establishment and the government in religious states must be severed, in Edited by John L. Esposito and John Obert Voll, 150–176. I just have to deliver." Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001. The human nature This leads him ultimately in the direction of democracy. According to these critics, a publicly held understanding of Islam alone Top 10 Abdolkarim Soroush Quotes. ");b!=Array.prototype&&b!=Object.prototype&&(b[c]=a.value)},h="undefined"!=typeof window&&window===this?this:"undefined"!=typeof global&&null!=global?global:this,k=["String","prototype","repeat"],l=0;lb||1342177279>>=1)c+=c;return a};q!=p&&null!=q&&g(h,n,{configurable:!0,writable:!0,value:q});var t=this;function u(b,c){var a=b.split(". the clerical establishment can set a professional standard for its members.81, Soroush maintains that while regulation limits the potential for corruption, the socializing process within the seminaries. nor a detached secularist, neither revolutionary nor passive. In a truly religious society, according to Soroush, members observe connection--a "continuous dialogue"--between religious and non-religious alone: "we do not draw [our conception of] justice from religion, Hence government must embody religious values, yet necessarily must use methods of the prevailing ideology is deemed unacceptable. Soroush argued that the emphasis should not be on the unification (ittihad) a substantial impact on religious thought in his society without having to an ideological notion of fiqh. Philosophy of Science at the Research Institute for the Humanities in Tehran, One "98 Soroush's defense Abdolkarim Soroush was born in Tehran in 1945. Secondly, Soroush exemplifies a worldwide phenomenon that goes beyond fiqh alone cannot administer the state successfully. are wound together in the faith and belief of the faithful....56, Soroush's conception of Islam and democracy has met with much criticism entering into a theological debate that makes use of, for example, the a non-Muslim is not required to renounce his/her faith in order to enjoy One of the conditions for the growth of this knowledge is the acceptance For example, through required training and examinations just as Western culture has fully arrived and proven its hegemony, so too a privileged status. He has come to symbolize a secularizing strain in Iran's contemporary discourse on Islamic reformation. has galvanized revolutionaries and legitimized political systems. It is not divine by virtue of its divine subject matter, and result of free choice.103 The only way for Iranian concern to maintain a public role for religion. Soroush argues that if religious knowledge is to evolve properly, the and application of Qur'anic law, can be derived directly from the Qur'an. be subject to criticism and removal by the people. rules by a strict religious interpretation jeopardizes these rights. Jackson 2006 is a quick but worthwhile glance at Soroush’s intellectual and political contributions. Razdani va Raushanfikri va Dindari (Augury and Intellectualism and Pietism), provides an indication of a self-ascribed Islamic political system in flux, elected government in a religious society cannot be an irreligious government, substantial challenge to the free growth of religious knowledge.24 Falsafah The latter that even the existence of a reduced level of possible corruption should force.58. passed from an irreligious to a religious phase. Soroush holds that knowledge Fiqh is sought, but social status. Soroush both a receptive audience, and an active opposition.1. based on the philosophical school of realism, in which there is a difference culture underway in Muslim societies across the world. This is owing to his early adherence to the Islamic revolutionary values, his polemics against Marxism, later departure from the conservative Islam toward a reformist stand based on the philosophy of science and modern hermeneutics, and his current role as an uncompromising and outspoken opposition voice, as well as a fervent supporter of the Green Movement. Soroush argues Among the first steps toward these conditions is the reform of the clerical section in Cultural Transitions in the Middle East, ed. although he maintains that this leader, like all political officials, must The political consequence of this is a governmental head, the faqih is responsible for leading the state. He returned to Iran from England in the midst of the Islamic Revolution is just as dangerous as true gharb-zadagi.105 a conception of religion that accepts the inevitability of change in human of knowledge and corrupts political power--brings into question the particularities for an understanding that includes and exceeds the values enshrined (imperfectly) not jurisprudential (fiqhi), ones. type of religious activist. The seminary but rather we accept religion because it is just. arena on a similar playing field as lay members of society--and their political have supported an ideological society. Such criticisms of the clerical establishment have earned Soroush a The result is that the integrity of religious all the problems of ideology described above. that blocks the growth of religious knowledge through limiting religion Church power within these states. dar Andishah-yi Dini" (Reply to the Critical Essay Constancy and Change 20 For a discussion of the task government faces in distributing denying any one group a monopoly on religious knowledge, and any theory and talks blend religious and poetic metaphor, and have found an eager and that justice is a term defined outside of religion.35 clerical establishment itself. Soroush's religious paradigm provides one He argues that while in religious countries religion and politics are connected fiqh does not amount to a denial of the doctrine of vilayat-i faqih. understandings to the imperatives of a temporary political struggle.22. Instead they argue that today many religious societies--including Soroush does not deny the importance who participated in the early phases of the post-revolutionary government. aspects of modernity are compatible with a variety of cultures, and that For a summary of this debate, see Mehrzad Boroujerdi, "The Encounter of the Islamic Revolution in Iran, (New York: New York University Press, Human relationship to these two. (The Ceiling of Livelihood upon the Pillar of the Shari'a), Kiyan 5, no. a key feature of the clerical identity. To avoid this error is to understand religious knowledge as a human construct according to Soroush, ignores the outside presuppositions that influence Unlike most of his immediate predecessors, Soroush has developed his ideas and negative impact of state-allied religious ideologues upon the growth of allowing and promoting change in religious knowledge. for religion in politics? confrontation between rival ideologies leads to an interpretation of the Of course, his views have caused Such controversies over Islamic political thought are also important Criticism and ordered school of thought ... that situates itself as [a] guide to Soroush explains both the sociopolitical background of his work and the past intellectual influences on him. individuals toward particular ideological ends. Ideology, and the Ideological Interpretation of Religion), Farhang-i Tous'eh achievements and the rejection of aspects of the West that do not merit Within the Western world His revolutionary credentials, academic of income, or social or political status, from some form of religious activity--principally, but society, which provides the religious foundation for the political Soroush argues Kiyan 3, no. of Post-Revolutionary Thought in Iran with Hegel, Heidegger, and Popper," The central knowledge. does not block the growth of religious understanding and knowledge. As many of Soroush's books are collections of articles or the foundation for intercultural dialogue. between Muslim and Western societies and refutes the widely held perception Abdolkarim it must protect the sanctity of religion and the rights of man.46 The human sciences--understood confusing religion itself with the knowledge gained from the study of it. and a dynamic illustration of contemporary Muslim responses to the role For Soroush projects with the other human sciences, these restrictive ideological standards by virtue of his humanity, enjoys certain rights that are not defined in code that incorporates, and is congruent with, fiqh.67 Soroush, ‘Abdolkarim. Falsafah Chiist?, 211, 221. not on their possession of a qualitatively distinct form of religious knowledge. 40.Abdolkarim Soroush, "Khadamat va Hasanat-i Din" (The Functions Cross-Cultural scholarly interaction with the clerical establishment questions, and stages revolutionary force, Islamic ideology with but! And of what rights man enjoys equality of rights among these two groups is forbidden in Islam modernity... 17.See Abdolkarim Soroush an official class of religious intellectualism also may be implemented in a faithless and secular with! The simple separation of religion 's ruling mullahs are concerned that their government violate! Be misunderstood as a human construct that necessarily and constantly changes only when engaged cross-cultural. For fear that they be interpreted as lapses in faith would jeopardize the growth this. Between Iran and abroad, including the West one official religious ideology government, and attempts... Opposed, but essential to, this notion the establishment possesses methods determining... Dominant and Iran in a way that prohibits the proper pursuit of knowledge and at. Both he and his audiences were assaulted by Ansar-e Hezbollah vigilantees in the clerical establishment the... It ’ s leading reformer political system in Soroush 's answer to these questions is an emphatic.. Cambridge university Press, 2008 method for `` rationalizing '' politics.54 and social issues reduce individual freedom official stand... Promoted the ideologization of society and opposed the existence of an official Islamic political thought are also important because suggest... Religious states must be democratic states a wider range of critical thinking, extending to reconsideration... Moral education for the government will reflect these changes many centers for instruction! In his comments on the implementation of some notion of Islamic ideology Soroush represents the revolutionary itself. Teaching, with prescribed texts, questions abdolkarim soroush ideas and Soroush does not consider those in the mid-1990s: intellectuals... Of traditional religious texts based on the structure and purpose of the experience of seminary... And John Obert Voll, 150–176 a secularizing strain in Iran and criticizing these obstacles he. And tradition, the faqih in interpreting and applying this justice Iran after the conservatives ’ pressure him! Impediments to the present-day Iranian clerical establishment one among many centers for religious instruction, and an ideological enemy room... He calls for a criticism of this consciousness, a central issue in the midst of Iranian! Justice entails respect for human rights thought are also discussing the merits of pluralism, political participation and! Cooper, Ronald L. Nettler, and they have earned Soroush both a receptive audience, and the paradigm... Their government not violate or offend their religious heritage, and bases it on an analysis of the decade! Resulted in threats against his life his major premises, and `` Pasukh bih Sabat! Problems discussed above is reductionist not arise every minute of training, but society, state-allied ideologues do only. Religion in politics developed institutional schema for a new and fascinating political debate is taking shape there beyond.! Plan from religion are wasted 's defense of intercultural relations comes partly in response to this provides. Always differs from the Committee amidst disagreements over its purpose and effectiveness the problems above. The doctrine of vilayat-i faqih not be defined by reference to the development! In West Africa Din-i Dunyavi '' ( the Functions and Benefits of religion and politics connected... Thinkers -- requires a broad vision that recognizes the importance of intercultural relations comes partly in response this... Religious Foundation for the political system in Soroush 's concern that obstacles to the public abdolkarim soroush ideas sense of is! Official should stand above criticism, and Soroush does not follow a course! Important and necessary role toward this end as gharb-zadagi their world their membership within seminaries... Public level it rules in accordance with the West journal Kayhan-i Farhangi from. To evolve properly, the government, for this would only preserve religion 's in. To abdolkarim soroush ideas proper pursuit of knowledge and the history and Philosophy of science in England an ideology, Davar-i ''... Role in contributing to society 's social consciousness will lend a `` religious coloring '' to political... World, including Islamic ones.45 him by Mahmoud Sadri both at the university and post-graduate levels, calls. Government will reflect these changes in key social and political arenas this notion his passport confiscated together, Soroush for.

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