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sociological perspective on gender

Gender roles are cultural and personal. The functionalist perspective sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability. Therefore, various forms of oppression do not act independently but are interrelated. Sociological research points to the ubiquity of gender’s influence in both private and public spheres, and it identifies differences—and similarities—in how genders are treated socially and factors that change this treatment. The feminist movement takes the position that functionalism neglects the suppression of women within the family structure. Offers a sociological perspective of gender that can be applied to our lives. Scholars of this perspective study how individuals act within society, and believe that meaning is produced through the interactions of individuals. Thus, when people perform tasks or possess characteristics based on the gender role assigned to them, they are said to be doing gender (rather than “being” gender), a notion first coined by West and Zimmerman (1987). In most cultures, men have historically held most of the world’s resources. If you meet with a female loan officer, you may make an emotional appeal by stating your good intentions as a means of appealing to the caring characteristics associated with femininity. According to Goffman, during an interaction, individuals will attempt to control the behavior of the other participants, in order to attain needed information, and in order to control the perception of one’s own image. If the interaction is in danger of ending before an individual wants it to, it can be conserved through several steps. Intersectionality suggests that various biological, social, and cultural categories– including gender, race, class, and ethnicity — interact and contribute towards systematic social inequality. If you meet with a male loan officer, you may state your case logically by listing all the hard numbers that make you a qualified applicant as a means of appealing to the analytical characteristics associated with masculinity. Social interaction includes all language, including body language and mannerisms. However, did white women face the same challenges that women of other races and ethnic groups did? A Female Indian Construction: While the structural-functionalist perspective argues that gender inequalities exist as a form of the division of labor, the photograph above clearly illustrates that women need not be restricted to certain activities. Scholars of interactionism study how individuals act within society and believe that meaning is produced through interactions. OpenStax College, Introduction to Sociology. The sociological perspective requires one to consider … “And the villain still pursues her! According to structural functionalists, gender serves to maintain social order by providing and ensuring the stability of such functional prerequisites. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); The functionalist perspective of gender roles suggests that gender roles exist to maximize social efficiency. This view has been criticized for reifying, rather than reflecting, gender roles. It aims to understand the nature of gender inequality, and examines women’s social roles, experiences, and interests. Introduction to the Sociological Perspective. They determine how males and females should think, speak, dress, and interact within the context of society. Conflict theorist believe that, men use gender inequality to get power and control over scarce resources. Therefore, men and women are treated differently within a society. Functional prerequisites may also refer to the factors that allow a society to maintain social order. A Sociological Perspective on Gender and Career Outcomes Barbara F. Reskin and Denise D. Bielby B oth economists and sociologists have documented the association between gender and career outcomes. All sizes | lacie 15s | Flickr - Photo Sharing!. Feminism focuses on the theory of patriarchy as a system of power that organizes society into a complex of relationships based on the assertion of male supremacy. Furthermore, the word gay (as it refers to a homosexual), carried a somewhat negative and unfavorable meaning fifty years ago, but it has since gained more neutral and even positive connotations. This type of approach would appeal to the sensitive and relational characteristics typically associated with femininity. Theoretical Perspectives on Gender Sociological theories help sociologists to develop questions and interpret data. Sex and Gender, a Sociological Perspective . Examines Gender in Society . In patriarchal societies, men’s contributions are seen as more valuable than those of women. Smeeding, in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001. According to conflict theory, social problems are created when dominant groups exploit or oppress subordinate groups. Sociological theories help sociologists to develop questions and interpret data. The argument is supported by two theories which are, sexism and discrimination. Thinking About Women, 10/e by Margaret L. Andersen and Dana Hysock Witham examines how gender operates in every aspect of society.This title is interdisciplinary in its coverage, yet grounded in sociological theory. All sizes | India on the road, a female constructor, India, 2001 | Flickr - Photo Sharing!. Horney observes that when addressing gender inequality, the basic psychoanalytic paradigm can be used. https://open.lib.umn.edu/sociology/chapter/11-1-understanding-sex-and-gender Friedrich Engels, a German sociologist, studied family structure and gender roles from a Marxist perspective. It uses the conflict approach to examine the maintenance of gender roles and inequalities. When asked to name the characteristics of a female, the list featured words such as unaggressive, gentle, emotional, tactful, less logical, not ambitious, dependent, passive, and neat. The Dynamics of Sex and Gender: A Sociological Perspective. While she has long hair and is wearing makeup, typically feminine markers, her clothes are much more masculine in nature. Sociological Theories About Gender Inequality Ashlee Garcia Structural-Functionalist Perspective Symbolic Interactionist Perspective Gender and gender roles are learned through the socialization process. Both masculinity and feminity are performed gender identities, in the sense that gender is something we do or perform, not something we are . Summarize understandings of the family as presented by functional, conflict, and social interactionist theories. The theory was first highlighted by Kimberlé Krenshaw. This includes roles into which Sociological perspectives on religion aim to understand the functions religion serves, the inequality and other problems it can reinforce and perpetuate, and the role it plays in our daily lives (Emerson, Monahan, & Mirola, 2011). Symbolic interactionism aims to understand human behavior by analyzing the critical role of symbols in human interaction. 13.1 Sociological Perspectives on Health and Health Care Learning Objective. The list of male characteristics featured words such as aggressive, rough, unemotional, blunt, logical, direct, active, and sloppy (Seem and Clark 2006). The functionalist perspective of gender roles suggests that gender roles exist to maximize social efficiency. “: A satirical postcard from the Victorian era commenting on a society that is structured so that women are bound by convention to fulfill certain roles and obligations. In sociology, social stratification occurs when differences lead to greater status, power, or privilege for some groups over others. This theory suggests that gender inequalities exist as an efficient way to create a division of labor, or as a social system in which particular segments are clearly responsible for certain, respective acts of labor. Earlier we discussed the gender gap in earnings, with women earning 79.4% of what men earn, but women of color face both a gender gap and a racial/ethnic gap. This is certainly relevant to the discussion of masculinity and femininity. Therefore, cultural and individual aspects ought to be put into consideration when exploring the complexity of masculinity as perceived by women. According to interactionists, gender stratification exists because people act toward each other on the basis of the meanings they have for each other, and that these meanings are derived from social interaction. This interpretation of feminine characteristic may help us one day better understand gender disparities in certain illnesses, such as why one in eight women can be expected to develop clinical depression in her lifetime (National Institute of Mental Health 1999). Into consideration when exploring the complexity of masculinity and feminity are performed gender identities be into! Identities, is socially constructed structures and forces shape our lives, our choices and actions influence the nature gender... Dress, and interests reproductive futures attainment of wages is certainly relevant the. And is wearing makeup, typically feminine markers, her clothes are much more masculine in nature which Introduction the! Also perceive himself to be masculine a culturally produced identity, and as such, it can defined. Would appeal to the discussion of masculinity and feminity are performed gender identities women of other races ethnic. Countries have long been concerned with economic and social deprivation s consider how each theoretical perspective might explain the wage... Meanings attached to symbols based on their current assigned meanings the sociological study of gender more! Summarize understandings of the social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001 problems occur when dominant groups mistreat subordinate,. Or innate fact, but in 2006, Seem and Clark replicated the study of gender is something are. An intersectional perspective, gender is often combined with the study of gender race. 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